Complete 8 pages APA formatted article: The Types of Cancer. Under the microscope, cancer cells show different structural characteristics because of which they can be differentiated from the normal cells. They are pleomorphic in nature, which means that they have a tendency to have a variable size and shape than the normal cells. The cancer cells have different sizes and different shapes. Most of the cancer cells have large nuclei from the surrounding normal tissue cells and the nuclei of the cancerous cells contain an abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy. The aneuploidy may occur due to mutation or deletion of a chromosome or any other reason. The cell membrane of the cancer cells produces some sort of surface enzymes that have the ability to damage the basement membrane of tissues, with the help of which cancer spreads more easily to the surrounding non-cancerous cells and damages them too. The cancer cells show an increased rate of mitosis, which is the process of the reproduction of the new cells and hence cancer spreads to the surroundings. The cancer cells have differences in metabolism in comparison to normal cells, as their metabolism is more anaerobic and therefore they may even combat hypoxic conditions. (Trahan 2001 & Robbins et al 2005)
Chromosomal rearrangements have been found to be existing in many forms of cancers such as leukemias and lymphomas. It is believed that chromosomal instability is a great cause for the onset of a certain type of cancer. Chromosomal rearrangements are believed to have an effect on the protooncogenes. Translocation and inversion of a chromosome, in particular, have a significant effect on the protooncogenes. Translocation is particularly important when studying the chromosomal rearrangements leading to cancer. Translocations have .two ways through which they can activate the protooncogenes one in which the overexpression of protooncogenes takes place which happens after the removal of these genes from the elements which hold them. Secondly, these translocations in many tumors form hybrid genes by combining two sets of different genres together.