1) Define genotype, phenotype, ontogeny, and phylogeny in your own words. What is the relationship between genotype, phenotype, ontogenetic development, and phenotypic development? Choose a specific example from the world and walk through each term using that one example (showing the connection and distinction between the terms).

Genotype- genes code of individual

Phenotype- expression in physical change

2) The motto of HDS is “From cells to societies: Embracing growth and change throughout the lifespan.” What do we mean by the terms: “growth,” “change,” and “developmental change”? How are these three concepts related and distinct from one another? Provide your own example of each (not from lecture).

Growth- physical change (not necessary relate to development change, for example kid will start to gain weight)

Change – development change (progression, systemic change)

3) From the perspective of human developmental science, how should we approach asking scientific questions? In your answer, also refer to and explain the four different types of questions as proposed by Tinbergen. Then provide one example of human behavior and write four questions that seek to explain this behavior in each of those four different ways (do not use “stopping at a red light”!).

Mechanism:  a visual stimulus is perceived, processed in the central nervous system, and elicits a motor response to the foot. = Proximate/Current

Development: the driver has learned by accumulating experience that this is what one does. = Proximate/Historical (Ontogenetic, see below)

Function: the driver knows that if you don’t do this, then you’ll probably get into an accident or get a ticket. =  Ultimate/Historical

Evolution: Why did red become the color associated with stopping, rather than some other color? Ultimate/Historical (Phylogenetic, see below)

4) The genotype of a flamingo does not have instructions for the creation of pink feathers. Would a researcher interested in systems development therefore say that the ‘nature’ of a flamingo is actually to have white feathers? Why or why not? Based on what we learned about human development, why is it problematic to explain development in terms of dichotomies like “nature vs. nurture” or “genes vs. environment”?

Flamingo born with white feathers but the food of their environment make their white feather become red.

5) After reviewing the syllabus in its entirety, what 2-3 lectures appeal to you the most? Please fully explain why these lectures in particular are interesting to you

 

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