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According to (Mcenroe-Petitte 2020) shows in 2018, 64.8 percent of 552,830 homeless individuals reside within a homeless shelter, within a supportive service that lasts for a course of 2 years. Additional research was done across all age groups in 2016 distinguished the difference between sheltered and unsheltered homeless individuals. Unsheltered individuals are usually found in the street, residing in vehicles, and in parks are more likely to be white while the emergency shelter is Black. Researchers show the highest rate of homelessness is found in California, New York, Florida, and Texas.
One of the barriers for the homeless population in Florida is obtaining medical care and filing prescription medications due to lack of insurance. For the homeless population faces many conditions, from HIV/AIDS, Substance abuse, and various communicable diseases such as TB and hepatitis. Hepatitis A requires a specific healthcare plan that is not always attainable by the homeless population. Often the homeless population seeks healthcare aides from the emergency department.
Per (Mcenroe-Petitte 2020) shows that” Although Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act may qualify people who are homeless for specific services, certain states may not recognize coverage or may limit its availability. Not having access to insurance can make having a communicable disease like hepatitis A and treating the sickness be difficult for a homeless individual. Many, obstacles can alter the care of a homeless patient, such as waiting for an extreme case of sickness prior to getting aid, other factors can be having access to transportation and covering the cost of a prescription.
In conclusion at the present time, there is one federally funded program, Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) many states can use the program for resources. Treating homelessness has a whole, is having an answer for different issues that community face versus one size fits all approach would help put an end to not only homelessness as well as Hepatitis A.
As noted in the previous discussion, my practicum projects focus on the prevention of substance abuse among adolescents in Tucson, Arizona. It is the second-largest city in Arizona after Pheonix. Adolescence is a transitional, developmental phase with a marked shift in behavior, mainly as related to risk-taking and experimentation. Genetic influences on adolescent behavior show marked changes across this developmental period. The developmental period of adolescence is characterized growth spurt, brain development, sexual maturation and identity (Dick, Adkins & Kuo, 2016).
Like other health issues, alcohol use can be linked to a complex array ranging from an individual level that is related to population-level of cultural and societal factors. The most common form of risk behavior among this group is the use of alcohol, which is considered a developmental phenomenon for this age group—the rate of alcohol consumption among adolescence and massive episodic drinking increase sharply. Data obtained from national surveys indicate that the percentage of American youth who have ever drunk at least one drink rises steeply across adolescence, leveling off at about the age of 21 years (SAMHSA 2019). The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far-reaching and range from accident and injuries to disease and death, as well as consequences for family, friends, and the larger society.
Community resources to assist adolescence struggling with substance abuse includes ” Drug-FreeAZKids” and “notMYKid” organization in Scottsdale and Phoenix. These programs have work to prevent and reduce youth drug and alcohol use through community education and awareness by providing parents, caregivers, healthcare providers, with educational resources and tools needed. The “notMYKid”orgaizaton works to empower and educate adolescents about preventing negative youth behaviors, peer-peer educational programs that address drug abuse, alcohol abuse, depression, injury, and internet safety—being a US. Mexico border city, the population of Tucson, has experienced an elevated risk for drinking and associated problems due to the poor services of infrastructure and drug-related violence. Recent studies suggest that the risk is pronounced among younger Mexican American residents in Tucson. Characteristics of this risk involve crossing over the border to drink in Mexico (where the legal drinking age is 18).
An evidence-based, culturally competent behavior change that would promote the health of adolescence struggling with substance abuse is family prevention efforts. These are efforts aimed at keeping adolescence from starting to drink or at preventing the escalation of drinking and negative consequences. Parents’ ability to influence whether their children drink is well documented and consistent across racial/ethnic groups. Family interventions encourage parents to be aware of the risk from underage drinking, communicate with their children, clarify expectations, set rules and consequences about alcohol use, and monitor children’s activity. Also, parents can create an environment that reduces alcohol availability as a means of changing adolescent behavior (Connor, Haber & Hall, 2016)