“Sampling is the process of selecting the study population or study sample” (Helbig, 2018 para 54). “The process of selecting a sample population from the target population is called the “sampling method”” (Elfil & Negida, 2017). It is essential that the researcher has a population in mind when choosing the study sample, all while sharing a common condition or problem like a disease. Elfil & Negida (2017) state the following example: “If we are conducting a study on patients with ischemic stroke, it will be difficult to include the whole population of ischemic stroke all over the world. It is difficult to locate the whole population everywhere and to have access to all the population. Therefore, the practical approach in clinical research is to include a part of this population, called “sample population”.” In the doing of a research study, it is imperative that such small sample represents the target or whole population as best as possible, meeting “predetermined characteristic inclusion criteria” (Hlebig, 2018, para 54). Sampling types can be broken into two categories: “1; probability sampling methods where all subjects in the target population have equal chances to be selected in the sample and 2; non-probability sampling methods where the sample population is selected in a non-systematic process that does not guarantee equal chances for each subject in the target population” (Elfil & Negida, 2017). A population selection example given by Helbig (2018) is Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) as the problem, for men and women between the ages of 60 and 90 years of age (inclusion criteria). The proposed intervention or research conducted would be a skin protectant dressing. Here the nurse is able to try a new skin protectant dressing, either on all or some of the population. The investigator would chose those who are affected, older people who have poor skin turgor and poor mobility as they would benefit from such intervention, avoiding younger people with good skin turgor and great mobility, as they would not benefit from skin protectant dressing.
“The generalizability of clinical research findings is based on multiple factors related to the internal and external validity of the research methods. The main methodological issue that influences the generalizability of clinical research findings is the sampling method” (Elfil & Negida, 2017). Through sampling methods, nursing researchers or investigators can conclude or further investigate results of studies, extending the investigation, allowing further questioning, and perfecting interventions for better outcomes.
Elfil, M., & Negida, A. (2017). Sampling methods in Clinical Research; an Educational Review. Emergency (Tehran, Iran), 5(1), e52. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5325924/
Helbig, J. (2018). Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Grand Canyon University (Ed). Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/1
The sampling theory centers on the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. The collection of data is done in random population samples. Based on this study , it is necessary to identify each person in the population and to have a chance to be selected as part of the sample (Grove et al . 2015). Population parameters are predicted based on an understanding of statistical measures in the sampling theory from sample studies. It also helps to determine whether observed differences are outcomes of chance or are really important, and whether to accept or reject presented hypotheses. Sampling theory also determines the consistency of certain forms of generalizations. Researchers generally prefer a convenience sample in which all patients meet study guidelines and criteria are included, allowing for a larger sample size and a greater data variety.
From a nursing perspective, patient’s care and procedures are founded in evidence- based practice research and proves the effectiveness in a study thru obtaining positive outcomes for the patients. Example will be a study done in a nursing unit about In the context of the nursing perspective, evidenced-based practice is proved efficient through experimentation with positive patient experiences which provide the foundation for the manner in which care is provided. A notable example would be of a study concerning the relationship between the number of CAUTI and nurse driven protocol of Foley’s catheter removal.
Grove, Susan, Jennifer Gray, Nancy Burns. Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition. Saunders