Posts

Assignment:

Before beginning this assignment be sure to watch the Scales of Measurement video. Observational experience to identify data based on people, events, and behaviors that represent a specific population. Go to a coffee shop in your neighborhood, spend a minimum of two hours. Upon arrive gather observations about the environment,

  • Noise
  • Perceptions related to people’s behaviors
  • Number of people present
  • Number of staff
  • Facial expressions on customers
  • Facial expressions on staff
  • Number of laptops and tablets
  • Number of perceived business meetings
  • Sitting along vs 2 or more

Create a chart with of the above-named categories and fill in the numbers upon arrival, and every 15 minutes for a total of eight observations. Using this data set, calculate the mean, mode, and median along with the percent of change that occurs every 15 minutes per observation. Notate if the data being measured is nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio.

Write a 500-750-word paper, based on your observation, identify three things you learned about data and statistics. How might this newly acquired skill translate into patient care?

Assignment Expectations

Length: 500-750 words; answers must thoroughly address the questions in a clear, concise manner. Be sure to include the chart, your findings, and the write up.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. These do not count towards the minimal word amount for this assignment.

References: Use at least one APA style in-text citations and references fo

DATA SET IS ATTACHED

To prepare for this Assignment, imagine that you have information about how 20 nursing students and 20 psychology students felt about starting PSYC 3002 on Day 1 of this class. You want to know if nursing students and psychology students felt differently about embarking on the Introduction to Basic Statistics journey. You can find the data set for this Assignment in the Weekly Data Set forum found in the Discussions area of the course navigation menu.

By Day 7

To complete this Assignment, submit your answers to the following. Use SPSS to determine if academic program is related to feelings about PSYC 3002 by computing the appropriate chi square test.

  1. Recall the four scales of measurement you learned about in Week 1 (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio). Explain what scale of measurement is used to measure academic program in this example. How do you know?
  2. Explain what scale of measurement is used to measure feeling about PSYC 3002. Explain how you know.
  3. State whether this scenario requires a goodness of fit test or a test of independence. Explain your answer.
  4. Before computing the chi square, state the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis in words (not formulas).
  5. Identify the obtained χ2 using SPSS and report it in your answer document.
  6. State the degrees of freedom and explain how you calculated it by hand.
  7. Identify the p value using SPSS and report it in your answer document.
  8. Explain whether you should retain or reject the null hypothesis and why.
  9. Are the results statistically significant? How do you know?
  10. Explain what you can determine about the relationship between academic program and feelings about PSYC 3002.

Be sure to fully explain the rationale for your answer to each question, including evidence from the text and Learning Resources.

Provide an APA reference list.

Submit three documents for grading:

  • Your text (Word) document with your answers and explanations to the assignment questions
  •  SPSS Data file
  • SPSS Output file
  • attachment

    WEEK6DATASET.pdf

Mini Research Proposal ANOVA

This written assignment is based on the work conducted in the “Basic ANOVA Study” discussion forum.  Based on this initial work, feedback received, and additional research, you should submit a mini research proposal that calls for the use of a one-way or repeated measures ANOVA.

Please include the following in the research proposal:
Introduction (1-2 paragraphs)

  • Present the research question of interest.
  • Explain how the chosen statistical test applies to this research question.
  • Provide the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses.
  • Explain the types of errors that can occur.
  • Methods
    • Participants (1 paragraph)
      • List how many participants will be selected.
      • Identify who will be the participants and their major demographic characteristics (e.g., sex, age, etc.).
      • Explain how participants will be selected for the study.
    • Procedures (1-2 paragraphs)
      • Identify the variables in the study.
      • Describe each variable’s scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) and characteristics (i.e., discrete vs. continuous, qualitative vs. categorical, etc.).
      • Provide an operational definition for each variable, explaining how the variables will be measured.
  • Results (1-2 paragraphs)
    • Describe the statistical test that will be conducted. Be sure to include why the test was chosen and why it is appropriate for this study.  Also, describe the role of post-hoc tests in the analysis.
    • Identify the information that will be obtained from the results of this test and what will be needed to draw conclusions regarding the hypotheses.
  • Discussion (1 paragraph)
    • Identify any expected biases, assumptions, or faults with the proposed study and the use of the identified statistical test.
    • Explain what conclusions can and cannot be made for this study using this statistical test.
    • Describe the practical significance or importance of the results.

The paper should be APA formatted as a research proposal, and approximately 1000 to 1350 words of content. Include a title page, and a reference page that includes any resources utilized.  Students should submit their paper by Day 7.

Every question should be at least 300 words plus show references. The questions are attached.

Correlation and Regression Study

Background

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 for which correlation or regression would be the best statistical approach to take. If you do not have a research question that indicates correlation or regression, review the research questions posted by your peers last week and select one that is ideal for correlation or regression.

Discussion Assignment Requirements

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

•Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of correlation and regression to answer.

•Describe why this question is appropriate for a correlational study.

•Identify the two variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, and scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio).

•Do the variables fit the qualifications of a correlational study? Explain.

•What type of correlation would you expect to find for this study (i.e., positive or negative)? Explain.

•What predictions might you be interested in making with these variables if the correlation is found to be significant?

Article Critique: Correlation & Regression

The readings for this week focus on the concepts of correlation and regression. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique of Wagenheim & Anderson (2008). For information on how to critique a research article, see the Coughlan et al. (2007) from your resources in Week 1 and UIS (n.d.) from your resources in Week 2.

In the body of your posting, include an overview of the following topics:

•Research question – State the research question for the study.

•Methods and study design – Describe the basic methods used, including the variables, sampling methods, data collection, etc.

•Data analysis – Summarize the statistical tests conducted, the results obtained from each test, and the conclusions regarding the research question.

•Critique – Critique the results of the study, paying specific attention to the appropriateness of the analyses conducted, any biases or assumptions that were made, practical significance of the results, and recommendations for improving upon the study (methods or analyses).

•Summary – Provide a brief summary of the study’s findings in 2-3 sentences. Do not use any numbers or statistical terms, but provide a review that would make sense to someone who has not studied research methods or statistics.

Be sure to put information in your own words and to cite appropriately. Respond substantively to at least two of your classmates’ postings. Specifically, focus on their critique of the results and discussion of the analysis. Do you agree with their assessment? What questions did the study leave you with? How might you have done this study differently? What do you see as the limitations of the study as compared to your classmates?

Z, T, or Chi-Square Test Study

Background

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 that would be best answered by any of the following statistical tests: z test, t test for single sample, independent samples t test, repeated measures t test, or Chi-Square test. This discussion will help you work towards your “Week 3 Assignment 2.” If there are no research questions that fit any of these types of statistical analyses, decide on a new question before moving forward with the assignment.

Discussion Assignment Requirements

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

•Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a z-, t-, or Chi-Square test to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

•Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

•Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

•Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test.

•Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

•Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Replies – Though you may respond to your peers multiple times during the week to provide support or feedback, students are required to respond to at least two of their classmates’ postings by Day 7.

Article Critique: Chi-Square Test

The readings for this week focus on the concepts of z tests, t tests, and Chi-Square tests. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique of a research article. For information on how to critique a research article, see the Coughlan et al. (2007) and UIS (n.d.) guides listed in the Required Readings for this week.

Read the following article:

•Apostolou, M. (2010). Parental choice: What parents want in a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law across 67 pre-industrial societies. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 695-704. doi: 10.1348/000712609X480634

In the body of your posting, include an overview of the following topics:

•Research question – State the research question for the study.

•Hypotheses – Provide written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for the study.

•Methods and Study Design – Describe the basic methods used, including the variables, sampling methods, data collection, etc.

•Data Analysis – Summarize the statistical tests conducted, the results obtained from each test, and conclusions regarding the hypotheses.

•Critique – Critique the results of the study, paying specific attention to the appropriateness of the analyses conducted, any biases or assumptions that were made, practical significance of the results, and recommendations for improving upon the study (methods or analyses).

•Summary – Provide a brief summary of the study’s findings in 2-3 sentences. Do not use any numbers or statistical terms, but provide a review that would make sense to someone who has not studied research methods or statistics.

Be sure to put information in your own words and cite accordingly. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings.

Basic ANOVA Study

Background

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 that would utilize one of the following: one-way ANOVA or repeated measures ANOVA. This discussion will help you work towards your “Week 4 Assignment 1”. If there are no research questions that fit any of these types of statistical analyses, you will need to decide on a new question before moving forward with the assignment.

Discussion Assignment Requirements

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

•Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a one-way or repeated measures ANOVA to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

•Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

•Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

•Do the variables fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test? Explain.

•List the statistical notation and written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

•Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Replies – Though you may respond to your peers multiple times during the week to provide support or feedback, students are required to respond to at least two of their classmates’ postings by Day 7.

Article Critique: Repeated Measures ANOVA

The readings for this week focus on the concepts of basic ANOVAs, including one-way and repeated measures ANOVA. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique of a research article. For information on how to critique a research article, see the Coughlan et al. (2007) and UIS (n.d.) guides listed in the Required Readings for this week.

Read the following article.

•Lee, M., & Johnson, T. E. (2008). Understanding the effects of team cognition associated with complex engineering tasks: Dynamics of shared mental models, Task-SMM, and Team-SMM. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21 (3), 73-95. doi: 10.1002/piq.20032

In the body of your posting, include an overview of the following topics:

•Research question – List the research question for the study.

•Hypotheses – List the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for the study.

•Methods and Study Design – Describe the basic methods used, including the variables, sampling methods, data collection, etc.

•Data Analysis – Summarize the statistical tests conducted, the results obtained from each test, and conclusions regarding the hypotheses.

•Critique – Critique the results of the study, paying specific attention to the appropriateness of the analyses conducted, any biases or assumptions that were made, practical significance of the results, and recommendations for improving upon the study (methods or analyses). • Summary – Provide a brief summary of the study’s findings in 2-3 sentences. Do not use any numbers or statistical terms, but provide a review that would make sense to someone who has not studied research methods or statistics.

Be sure to put information in your own words and cite accordingly. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings.

Complex ANOVA Study

Background

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 that would utilize one of the following: factorial ANOVA or mixed-design ANOVA. If there are no research questions that fit any of these types of statistical analyses, you will need to decide on a new question before moving forward with the assignment.

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

Discussion Assignment Requirements

•Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a factorial or mixed-design ANOVA to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

•Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

•Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

•Do the variables fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test? Explain.

•List the statistical notation and written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

•Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Article Critique: Factorial ANOVA

The readings for this week focus on the concepts of complex ANOVAs, including factorial and mixed-design ANOVA. In this discussion we will apply those concepts to the review and critique of a research article. For information on how to critique a research article, see the Coughlan et al. (2007) and UIS (n.d.) guides listed in the Required Readings for this week.

Read the following article.

•Hoyt, C. L., Price, T. L., & Emrick, A. E. (2010). Leadership and the more-important-than-average effect: Overestimation of group goals and the justification of unethical behavior. Leadership, 6(4), 391-407. doi: 10.1177/1742715010379309

In the body of your posting, include an overview of the following topics:

•Research question – List the research question for the study.

•Hypotheses – List the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for the study.

•Methods and Study Design – Describe the basic methods used, including the variables, sampling methods, data collection, etc.

•Data Analysis – Summarize the statistical tests conducted, the results obtained from each test, and conclusions regarding the hypotheses.

•Critique – Critique the results of the study, paying specific attention to the appropriateness of the analyses conducted, any biases or assumptions that were made, practical significance of the results, and recommendations for improving upon the study (methods or analyses).

•Summary – Provide a brief summary of the study’s findings in 2-3 sentences. Do not use any numbers or statistical terms, but provide a review that would make sense to someone who has not studied research methods or statistics.

•Be sure to put information in your own words and cite accordingly.

Research Consumers

While your application and evaluation of research design and statistics in this course has been in the context of peer-reviewed journal articles and research, most of the research you will encounter outside of your formal studies will be in the context of lay sources – newspapers, popular press, Facebook threads/posts, cable news shows and so on. What are the differences between peer-reviewed, academic research, and research reported in the popular press? How do you go about being an intelligent consumer of research in the popular press? If you were to advise friends and family about how to interpret research claims they encounter in their daily lives, what advice would you share and why?

Be sure to put information in your own words and cite accordingly.