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This is another student post to which i have to react adding some extra information related this post.

short answers.

 

The current American model (ACA) is based on private healthcare. Americans lack universal access to health, so they depend on private insurance for health care. There are three ways to get coverage in the US: through a job – companies with more than 50 full-time workers must pay for part of the policy – buying it individually or, in the case of people without resources and older age 65, through two public programs.

In the present year, 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic has brought into sharp focus the need for health care reforms that promote universal access to affordable care.

About half of Americans receive health coverage through their employer, and with record numbers filing for unemployment insurance, millions find themselves without health insurance in the midst of the largest pandemic in a century. Even those who maintain insurance coverage may find care unaffordable. (King, 2020)

Before the pandemic, research showed that more than half of Americans with employer-sponsored health insurance had delayed or postponed recommended treatment for themselves or a family member in the previous year because of cost. The loss of jobs, income, and health insurance associated with the pandemic will greatly exacerbate existing health care cost challenges for all Americans. (King, 2020)

The pandemic has wreaked havoc on the country’s health system but at the same time has exposed the serious shortcomings of the American health system. However, it should not be hidden that before this event a health reform was necessary in which universal access to quality care for all Americans was guaranteed.

An adequate reform could be based on the Canadian health model, much like the British health model. In both countries, the health system is financed by the government and is based on five principles: it is accessible to all regardless of income, it offers complete services, it is publicly managed, and it is universally accessible to citizens and permanent residents. However, in the Canadian model some services such as dental and vision services are not covered. (Thomson, 2012)

Clearly, no health model will be 100% perfect and mishaps may arise along the way that must be addressed and improved, but health is a right that all people must have and a country that is a world power such as the United States, with excellent management can achieve a quality health system that is truly affordable for each and every one of its habitants.

10 essential health benefits in the ACA

  1. Ambulatorypatient services
  2. Emergencyservices
  3. Hospitalization
  4. Maternityand newborn care
  5. Mentalhealth and substance use disorder services, including behavioral healthtreatment
  6. Prescriptiondrugs
  7. Rehabilitativeand habilitative services and devices
  8. Laboratoryservices
  9. Preventiveand wellness services and chronic disease management
  10. Pediatricservices, including oral and vision care (Bagley & Levy, 2014)

Successes of the ACA

More than 20 million previously uninsured people got coverage between 2010 and 2017. In part it was because the economy improved, but many were also able to buy their own coverage thanks to federal subsidies provided by law to pay for part of the cost of insurance. Other provisions of the ACA played an important role, including a ban on restricting access to care for people with pre-existing conditions, expanding the Medicaid program to more low-income adults, and allowing children to remain in the your parents’ health plans up to age 26. (Williams, 2020)

Failures of the ACA

A growing number of insurers that signed up in 2014 – the reform’s first year of implementation – have been leaving the state regulated markets, year after year. (Williams, 2020)

Therefore, competition between policy providers has decreased, there were fewer and fewer options to choose from, reaching the point that in many counties (which act as municipal associations to offer services continuously) there was only one company that offered ACA-type policies.

At the end of October 2016, the Obama Administration announced that the ACA-type policies that insurers were going to offer for the year 2017 incorporated a national average increase in premiums of 25%. This increase was not territorially uniform at all; in states like Arizona, Illinois, Montana, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania and Tennessee it was about 50%. (Williams, 2020)

Overall, the ACA has led to an increased number of individuals with insurance; however, in many ways, it has not improved the coverage. As a result, the quality of care has not been shown to have increased. Further, the majority of the increased insurance enrollment has been with Medicaid expansion. Consequently, ACA does not work well for the working and middle class who receive much less support, particularly those who earn more than 400% of the federal poverty level, who constitute 40% of the population and do not receive any help. Further, as so many individuals don’t do well under the ACA, only about 40% of those eligible for subsidies have signed up and, with multiple insurers declaring losses, the ACA is not financially sustainable because not enough healthy people are on the rolls to compensate for the sick. (Center, 2017)

REFERENCES:

Bagley, N., & Levy, H. (2014). Essential health benefits and the Affordable Care Act: Law and process. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 39(2), 441-465.

Center, H., Woods, C. A., Manchikanti, L., & Purdue Pharma, L. P. (2017). A critical analysis of Obamacare: Affordable care or insurance for many and coverage for few. Pain Physician, 20, 111-138.

King, Jaime S. “Covid-19 and the need for health care reform.” New England Journal of Medicine (2020).

Thomson, S., Osborn, R., Squires, D., & Jun, M. (2012). International profiles of health care systems 2012: Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States.

Williams, R. A. (2020). Healthcare Reform Law (Obamacare): Update on “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly” and the Persistence of Polarization on Repeal and Replace. In Blacks in Medicine (pp. 91-95). Springer, Cham.

 Please include references in each response. Respond to each response separately.   Write 2 paragraphs for each response

Peer Response one (T.A)

Adults seek out jobs, select them, and sometimes ascend to positions of responsibility in their fields of work (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). When we graduated high school, many of us make the choice to go off to college and get a degree in a particular career field of our interest. And some of us, don’t take that path and instead settle with an 8-5 job. For many adults, having the career they dream about is very important to them. When I think of the word work, I think of people going to their everyday place of employment, doing work that they don’t necessarily enjoy. At some point in our lives, we have heard “it pays the bills.” For example, a person who is a waitress at a local restaurant. In other words, individuals are settling with the type of work they are doing. However, work in modern organizations is described as increasingly complex, ambiguous, and uncertain (as cited in Kuchinke, Cornachione, Oh, & Kang, 2010). On the other hand, a career is an occupation in which the individual actually enjoys going to work because the type of occupation they are in, they went to school for it. These are the individuals that say “I love my job.” For example, those who have gone to school to become a doctor.

Theoretical Foundations

According to Holland, a job or career typically makes demands on an individual that are compatible with one or more of the six models of orientations (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Those include, realistic, investigative, artistic, social enterprising, and conventional. These different orientations listed allows counselors to help their client with giving them an insight as to the different types of job that are out there. Based on a person’s personality, they will choose a job that is similar to their personality. For instance, those who are not afraid to speak against something that doesn’t seem right to them or who is a leader, they may choose a career in politics or become a lawyer. Or someone who seems to be supportive in listening to others problems or dilemmas may seek a career in counseling or nursing.

Super’s theorizing about career development focuses less on specifying the personal style or job types and more on describing the developmental processes that determine both emergence of one’s vocational concept and the multiple factors that influence job choices throughout the life span (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The developmental process that is included in Super’s theory is the growth stage, the exploration stage, establishment stage, maintenance stage, and decline stage. We start out by exploring the different types of careers we want to have when we get older. For example, my six-year-old says he wants to be a firefighter when he grows up. He fantasizes about being a firefighter when he plays with his peers at school or when they had a career day at his school, he chose a firefighter. However, as he continues to grow, he may lose interest in becoming a firefighter so he looks at maybe becoming a police officer or join the military. Vocational self-concept is tentatively narrowed down, but often career choices are not finalized (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). When he reaches his mid-20’s he may find that being a police officer is not what he wants to do but instead he wants to be a dentist. And as he continues to grow into his 40’s he may want to seek another specialty in the dentist world so he will make that adjustment. And by his 60’s he will be ready for retirement.

Personal Reflections

I decided to pursue a career in Mental Health Counseling because for as long as I can remember, my uncle was the happiest person who would come to our family gatherings. He always told his nieces, when you go off into the real world, remember where you come from and help your people in any way you can with the career you choose. Five years later, he committed suicide because he was bottling up his feelings. From witnessing firsthand what military men and women go through while deployed overseas to my mother passing away and getting depressed to the devasting news that my uncle committed suicide, it struck a nerve. Something inside of me told me that I need to help individuals who are also bottling up their feelings about the things they are going through.  That I need to be the one to help them get back on their feet so that they can function again.

I believe the counseling profession will add meaning to my life by allowing me the chance to impact someone’s life and letting them know that although it may seem no one cares for them, there is someone rooting for their success. Erickson viewed women’s identities as necessarily provisional until they made an intimate life commitment; women were destined to be predominantly nurturing and accommodating (Newton & Stewart, 2010). Also, knowing that I may have the potential to save someone’s life. Having mental illnesses of some sort can be detrimental for some people, therefore, I think helping that individual get back on the right track would bring so much meaning to my life.

I also think that developmental changes in our lives have an impact on the type of career we pursue. For instance, I wanted to be a nurse but as I continued to develop, I realized that Nursing wasn’t for me. I didn’t want to stick people with a needle or do an EKG on them, instead, I wanted to have face to face conversations about what is going on with them. Women’s focus on it may remain relatively high in early middle age as women continue to develop their talents and careers; it may then remain stable or decline later in the period (Newton & Stewart, 2010). Also, the chances of having children may impact the type of careers we will have. For instance, my friend was going to school to become an interior decorator, however, since her second son was born with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), which is lack of oxygen and restriction of blood flow affecting the brain. Her son needs her help both physically and emotionally because he is unable to do certain things. Therefore, she decided to pursue a career as a Certified Nursing Assistant so that she can assist children like hers.

Summary

In closing, we don’t always know what we want to do in life. Some of us may take a lot more time figuring out what exactly it is we want to do. We want to be satisfied with the career we chose because going to a job that makes us unhappy, to me, seems like a waste of time. We may see something that we may want to do as we get older but it doesn’t always work out the way we plan it. There may be times in which, the things that we actually want to do makes us change the direction we are headed and that is okay. We need to test the water before we decide to go swimming or not.

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). Socioemotional and Vocational Development in Young Adulthood. The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.) (pp. 438-476). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Kuchinke, K. P., Cornachione, E. B., Oh, S. Y., & Kang, H.-S. (2010). All work and no play? The meaning of work and work stress of mid-level managers in the United States, Brazil, and Korea. Human Resource Development International, 13(4), 393–408.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Newton, N., & Stewart, A. J. (2010). The middle ages: Changes in women’s personalities and social roles. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(1),75–84.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Peer response two (C.R)

 

The idea of choosing a career can be stressful and scary to young adults as there is great importance placed on this task. When a young adult enters college they are pressured to decide on a major which is related to the career path they will take and as such is an important developmental task that occurs. On the other hand, young adults that choose to not go to college and immediately enter the work force must also choose what career path they wish to take (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). In addition, research has shown that career success and satisfaction depend on the idea of matching the characteristic’s an individual possess to the demands of the job chosen (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The more confident an individual is in themselves is related to the likeliness they will make a good career choice for themselves (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Overall, self-concept and self-understanding are critical features of being able to choose a career path that will lead to success and happiness for the individual (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Theoretical Foundations

Holland’s Theory of Personality-Environment Types suggests that by early adulthood individuals have something called modal personal orientation which means that each individual has their own way to responding to certain social and environmental tasks that are presented to them (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Holland goes further to suggest that each individual can be categorized as one of six modal orientations which are formed based on the individual’s personality (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). For example, one of the six modal orientations are “social”, this category fits an individual that is social, friendly, cooperative, kind, and understanding; these individuals usually find success and happiness in the helping professions (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). On the other end of the spectrum in terms of the modal orientations is “enterprising”; these individuals also considered social but are also considered as attention-seeking, dominant, and talkative, therefore, these individuals are likely to find success and happiness in a sales position or an executive business position (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Furthermore, the six modal orientations include the already listed social and enterprising, but also include realistic, investigative, artistic, and conventional (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Holland believed that if individuals chose their career environments based on their personality types then they would be more likely to be successful and happy in their career endeavors.

Although Super agreed with Holland that career satisfaction and happiness is dependent on an individual choosing a career that fits their personality, he went further in suggesting that an individual’s self-concept along with several other factors that have an influence on one’s career choices throughout an individual’s life span affect one’s overall career satisfaction (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Super proposed the idea of vocational self-concept; this idea includes one’s beliefs of their own personal and psychological characteristics, and how one assesses their life circumstances (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Young adults are considered by Super to be in a stage of development described as the exploratory stage; this is a stage where an individual has narrowed their potential career paths, however, no final decisions have been made yet (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The first part of this stage is characterized by crystallization, this is where general career goals are made, which then leads into specification, this is where career goals and preferences are even more narrowed, thus finally ending this stage with implementation, this is where college graduation and the transition to full-time employment occurs (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). One of the main ideas of Super’s approach is that career development is a process that continues throughout the life span, much life one’s personal growth (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

The forgotten half is a term given to those that choose to not go the college route (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Overall, the basic attitudes and beliefs about work and family life to not differ much if you compare those that do go to college and those that don’t; although having a good career is an important aspect of life for a great deal of young adults, having a family is another highly important aspect of life to young adults (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Although there is no shame in not going to college and taking a different route, research has proved than the chances of goal achievement and success declines significantly for those individuals that do not pursue a college degree (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Research supports the idea that high school students should have access to vocational counseling is beneficial to students, thus, providing students with the information needed to decide whether to pursue higher education or not (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Personal Reflection

I took my first psychology course in high school; this course was Psychology 100 and counted as credit for high school as well as college. This course was the most interesting class I had ever taken, and from that one course I knew psychology was the field for me! So, I declared my major as psychology and eagerly began taking courses my freshman year of college. Throughout my undergraduate career I was unsure which field of psychology I wanted to go into, and it was not until I graduated with my bachelor’s degree that I decided counseling was the field for me. I always knew I wanted to help people for a living, and figured that counseling was the best way to incorporate helping people into my love for psychology. I believe the counseling professional will add meaning to my life in a number of ways. As I mentioned above, I always knew I wanted to help people and that is exactly what counselors do, they help people. Counselors are there to listen and support individuals through difficult times in their lives, they are there to let someone else know they do not have to go through life alone, and I believe the world is a better place because of counselors. Women are entering the work force in numbers that have not been seen in previous generations, in fact, in recent years women have outnumbered men in the psychology field (Bray, 2018; Clay, 2017).  It is no secret that women are typically seen as nurturing and caring than men, thus, counseling can be a good match to women who do possess these characteristics and qualities (Newton & Stewart, 2010). I believe that I definitely do possess these qualities and characteristics and that is why I believe I will be both successful, and happy, with my career choice.

Summary

Overall, an individual’s career choice will greatly impact their quality of life and work satisfaction. It is important to consider one’s personality and personal characteristics when determining which career path to take. I will use apply my knowledge on career development in my future practice as a counselor by encouraging clients to choose a field they are passionate about; without passion work is just that, work. If you are passionate about what you are doing, then you will get more satisfaction out of your career and be more successful in life’s endeavors.

References

Bray, B. (2018). Speaking to the needs of women in counseling. Counseling Today. Retrieved from https://ct.counseling.org/2018/01/speaking-needs-women-counseling/

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Clay, R. A. (2017). Women outnumber men in psychology, but not in the field’s top echelons. American Psychological Association, 48(7), pp. 18. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/07-08/women-psychology.aspx

Newton, N., & Stewart, A. J. (2010). The middle ages: Changes in women’s personalities and social roles. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(1), 75-84. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 Please include references in each response. Respond to each response separately.   Write 2 paragraphs for each response

Peer Response one (T.A)

Adults seek out jobs, select them, and sometimes ascend to positions of responsibility in their fields of work (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). When we graduated high school, many of us make the choice to go off to college and get a degree in a particular career field of our interest. And some of us, don’t take that path and instead settle with an 8-5 job. For many adults, having the career they dream about is very important to them. When I think of the word work, I think of people going to their everyday place of employment, doing work that they don’t necessarily enjoy. At some point in our lives, we have heard “it pays the bills.” For example, a person who is a waitress at a local restaurant. In other words, individuals are settling with the type of work they are doing. However, work in modern organizations is described as increasingly complex, ambiguous, and uncertain (as cited in Kuchinke, Cornachione, Oh, & Kang, 2010). On the other hand, a career is an occupation in which the individual actually enjoys going to work because the type of occupation they are in, they went to school for it. These are the individuals that say “I love my job.” For example, those who have gone to school to become a doctor.

Theoretical Foundations

According to Holland, a job or career typically makes demands on an individual that are compatible with one or more of the six models of orientations (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Those include, realistic, investigative, artistic, social enterprising, and conventional. These different orientations listed allows counselors to help their client with giving them an insight as to the different types of job that are out there. Based on a person’s personality, they will choose a job that is similar to their personality. For instance, those who are not afraid to speak against something that doesn’t seem right to them or who is a leader, they may choose a career in politics or become a lawyer. Or someone who seems to be supportive in listening to others problems or dilemmas may seek a career in counseling or nursing.

Super’s theorizing about career development focuses less on specifying the personal style or job types and more on describing the developmental processes that determine both emergence of one’s vocational concept and the multiple factors that influence job choices throughout the life span (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The developmental process that is included in Super’s theory is the growth stage, the exploration stage, establishment stage, maintenance stage, and decline stage. We start out by exploring the different types of careers we want to have when we get older. For example, my six-year-old says he wants to be a firefighter when he grows up. He fantasizes about being a firefighter when he plays with his peers at school or when they had a career day at his school, he chose a firefighter. However, as he continues to grow, he may lose interest in becoming a firefighter so he looks at maybe becoming a police officer or join the military. Vocational self-concept is tentatively narrowed down, but often career choices are not finalized (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). When he reaches his mid-20’s he may find that being a police officer is not what he wants to do but instead he wants to be a dentist. And as he continues to grow into his 40’s he may want to seek another specialty in the dentist world so he will make that adjustment. And by his 60’s he will be ready for retirement.

Personal Reflections

I decided to pursue a career in Mental Health Counseling because for as long as I can remember, my uncle was the happiest person who would come to our family gatherings. He always told his nieces, when you go off into the real world, remember where you come from and help your people in any way you can with the career you choose. Five years later, he committed suicide because he was bottling up his feelings. From witnessing firsthand what military men and women go through while deployed overseas to my mother passing away and getting depressed to the devasting news that my uncle committed suicide, it struck a nerve. Something inside of me told me that I need to help individuals who are also bottling up their feelings about the things they are going through.  That I need to be the one to help them get back on their feet so that they can function again.

I believe the counseling profession will add meaning to my life by allowing me the chance to impact someone’s life and letting them know that although it may seem no one cares for them, there is someone rooting for their success. Erickson viewed women’s identities as necessarily provisional until they made an intimate life commitment; women were destined to be predominantly nurturing and accommodating (Newton & Stewart, 2010). Also, knowing that I may have the potential to save someone’s life. Having mental illnesses of some sort can be detrimental for some people, therefore, I think helping that individual get back on the right track would bring so much meaning to my life.

I also think that developmental changes in our lives have an impact on the type of career we pursue. For instance, I wanted to be a nurse but as I continued to develop, I realized that Nursing wasn’t for me. I didn’t want to stick people with a needle or do an EKG on them, instead, I wanted to have face to face conversations about what is going on with them. Women’s focus on it may remain relatively high in early middle age as women continue to develop their talents and careers; it may then remain stable or decline later in the period (Newton & Stewart, 2010). Also, the chances of having children may impact the type of careers we will have. For instance, my friend was going to school to become an interior decorator, however, since her second son was born with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), which is lack of oxygen and restriction of blood flow affecting the brain. Her son needs her help both physically and emotionally because he is unable to do certain things. Therefore, she decided to pursue a career as a Certified Nursing Assistant so that she can assist children like hers.

Summary

In closing, we don’t always know what we want to do in life. Some of us may take a lot more time figuring out what exactly it is we want to do. We want to be satisfied with the career we chose because going to a job that makes us unhappy, to me, seems like a waste of time. We may see something that we may want to do as we get older but it doesn’t always work out the way we plan it. There may be times in which, the things that we actually want to do makes us change the direction we are headed and that is okay. We need to test the water before we decide to go swimming or not.

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). Socioemotional and Vocational Development in Young Adulthood. The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.) (pp. 438-476). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Kuchinke, K. P., Cornachione, E. B., Oh, S. Y., & Kang, H.-S. (2010). All work and no play? The meaning of work and work stress of mid-level managers in the United States, Brazil, and Korea. Human Resource Development International, 13(4), 393–408.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Newton, N., & Stewart, A. J. (2010). The middle ages: Changes in women’s personalities and social roles. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(1),75–84.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Peer response two (C.R)

 

The idea of choosing a career can be stressful and scary to young adults as there is great importance placed on this task. When a young adult enters college they are pressured to decide on a major which is related to the career path they will take and as such is an important developmental task that occurs. On the other hand, young adults that choose to not go to college and immediately enter the work force must also choose what career path they wish to take (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). In addition, research has shown that career success and satisfaction depend on the idea of matching the characteristic’s an individual possess to the demands of the job chosen (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The more confident an individual is in themselves is related to the likeliness they will make a good career choice for themselves (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Overall, self-concept and self-understanding are critical features of being able to choose a career path that will lead to success and happiness for the individual (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Theoretical Foundations

Holland’s Theory of Personality-Environment Types suggests that by early adulthood individuals have something called modal personal orientation which means that each individual has their own way to responding to certain social and environmental tasks that are presented to them (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Holland goes further to suggest that each individual can be categorized as one of six modal orientations which are formed based on the individual’s personality (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). For example, one of the six modal orientations are “social”, this category fits an individual that is social, friendly, cooperative, kind, and understanding; these individuals usually find success and happiness in the helping professions (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). On the other end of the spectrum in terms of the modal orientations is “enterprising”; these individuals also considered social but are also considered as attention-seeking, dominant, and talkative, therefore, these individuals are likely to find success and happiness in a sales position or an executive business position (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Furthermore, the six modal orientations include the already listed social and enterprising, but also include realistic, investigative, artistic, and conventional (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Holland believed that if individuals chose their career environments based on their personality types then they would be more likely to be successful and happy in their career endeavors.

Although Super agreed with Holland that career satisfaction and happiness is dependent on an individual choosing a career that fits their personality, he went further in suggesting that an individual’s self-concept along with several other factors that have an influence on one’s career choices throughout an individual’s life span affect one’s overall career satisfaction (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Super proposed the idea of vocational self-concept; this idea includes one’s beliefs of their own personal and psychological characteristics, and how one assesses their life circumstances (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Young adults are considered by Super to be in a stage of development described as the exploratory stage; this is a stage where an individual has narrowed their potential career paths, however, no final decisions have been made yet (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). The first part of this stage is characterized by crystallization, this is where general career goals are made, which then leads into specification, this is where career goals and preferences are even more narrowed, thus finally ending this stage with implementation, this is where college graduation and the transition to full-time employment occurs (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). One of the main ideas of Super’s approach is that career development is a process that continues throughout the life span, much life one’s personal growth (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

The forgotten half is a term given to those that choose to not go the college route (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Overall, the basic attitudes and beliefs about work and family life to not differ much if you compare those that do go to college and those that don’t; although having a good career is an important aspect of life for a great deal of young adults, having a family is another highly important aspect of life to young adults (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Although there is no shame in not going to college and taking a different route, research has proved than the chances of goal achievement and success declines significantly for those individuals that do not pursue a college degree (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Research supports the idea that high school students should have access to vocational counseling is beneficial to students, thus, providing students with the information needed to decide whether to pursue higher education or not (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Personal Reflection

I took my first psychology course in high school; this course was Psychology 100 and counted as credit for high school as well as college. This course was the most interesting class I had ever taken, and from that one course I knew psychology was the field for me! So, I declared my major as psychology and eagerly began taking courses my freshman year of college. Throughout my undergraduate career I was unsure which field of psychology I wanted to go into, and it was not until I graduated with my bachelor’s degree that I decided counseling was the field for me. I always knew I wanted to help people for a living, and figured that counseling was the best way to incorporate helping people into my love for psychology. I believe the counseling professional will add meaning to my life in a number of ways. As I mentioned above, I always knew I wanted to help people and that is exactly what counselors do, they help people. Counselors are there to listen and support individuals through difficult times in their lives, they are there to let someone else know they do not have to go through life alone, and I believe the world is a better place because of counselors. Women are entering the work force in numbers that have not been seen in previous generations, in fact, in recent years women have outnumbered men in the psychology field (Bray, 2018; Clay, 2017).  It is no secret that women are typically seen as nurturing and caring than men, thus, counseling can be a good match to women who do possess these characteristics and qualities (Newton & Stewart, 2010). I believe that I definitely do possess these qualities and characteristics and that is why I believe I will be both successful, and happy, with my career choice.

Summary

Overall, an individual’s career choice will greatly impact their quality of life and work satisfaction. It is important to consider one’s personality and personal characteristics when determining which career path to take. I will use apply my knowledge on career development in my future practice as a counselor by encouraging clients to choose a field they are passionate about; without passion work is just that, work. If you are passionate about what you are doing, then you will get more satisfaction out of your career and be more successful in life’s endeavors.

References

Bray, B. (2018). Speaking to the needs of women in counseling. Counseling Today. Retrieved from https://ct.counseling.org/2018/01/speaking-needs-women-counseling/

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Clay, R. A. (2017). Women outnumber men in psychology, but not in the field’s top echelons. American Psychological Association, 48(7), pp. 18. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/07-08/women-psychology.aspx

Newton, N., & Stewart, A. J. (2010). The middle ages: Changes in women’s personalities and social roles. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(1), 75-84. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

APA format, Cite all sources

IMPORTANT: In no more than 3 and no less than 3 double spaced pages, respond to each of the following 4 questions after reading the attached (below) Case description of “Gloria.”

Gloria – An Adult with Developmental Disabilities*

1.    Briefly describe Gloria from the perspective of child development, in each of the following areas:  Cognitive, Physical, Social/Emotional, and Moral development.

2.    Describe Gloria from either the humanistic OR the psychoanalytic perspective of personality development.

3.    Describe Gloria from Erickson’s lifespan development perspective.

4.    Summarize your impressions of Gloria and what you think might be most challenging about working with her.  Do this in a short paragraph of 3 or 4 sentences.

Case Description of Gloria:

Gloria is a 53 year old person who was born mildly mentally retarded and with cerebral palsy . Soon after birth, her parents placed her in an institution for the developmentally disabled. She lived there until she was 31, at which time she was placed in a group home for the mentally retarded.

As a child, Gloria’s language development was delayed. She could not speak in sentences until she was 4 years old. She was not toilet-trained until age 7. Although her parents would visit her periodically, her main caretakers were the social service workers at the institution. Gloria was schooled at the institution where she acquired the equivalent of a second grade education. Gloria had few friends in the institution and was considered a loner. Despite working on socialization skills while in the institution, Gloria still prefers to be alone and spends much of her time painting. She has become a rather good artist, and many of her paintings are found in the institution and in the group home. Visitors often comment on the paintings and are generally surprised that a developmentally disabled person can paint so well. Gloria has a part-time job at a local art supply store where she generally does menial work.

Although Gloria does have some friends at the group home and at the art supply store, generally when she spends much time with someone, she ends up having a temper tantrum. When this happens she will usually withdraw, often to her painting. Gloria generally blames other people for her anger.

Gloria is a rules follower. She feels very strongly about the list of rules on the bulletin board at her group home. She methodically reports people who break the rules. She always feel extremely guilty after having a temper tantrum, because she sees herself as breaking the rule “talk things out rather than get into a fight>” In a similar vein, Gloria feels that laws in the country “are there for a purpose.” For instance, at street crossings she always stops at red lights and waits for the light to change.

Gloria has no sense of her future. She lives from day to day, and despite periods of depression, generally functions fairly adequately. She states she wants to get married, but her lack of socialization skills prevents her from having any meaningful relationships with men.

Overall, the human service professionals who have contact with Gloria describe her as a rigid, conscientious, talented person who has trouble maintaining relationships. They note that despite being in individual counseling and in a socialization support group, she has made little progress in maintaining satisfying relationships. Their feeling is that she will probably maintain her current level of functioning, and they see little hope for change.”

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resources on your own before you bid. Main references come from Murray, C., Pope, A., & Willis, B. (2017) and/or American Psychological Association (2014). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates with references separately. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. I need this completed by 03/21/2020

Expectation:

Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note, that although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.

Read your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (C. Als)

Main Post

People will understand their sexuality based on their own experiences. Many couples have experienced infidelity, overcame the strain of that pain and were able to make their relationship work. You also have many relationships that didn’t survive infidelity, and, in these cases, it depended on the nature of the infidelity. Having some knowledge of infidelity, I am aware cultural, and environmental background will play a role in the recovery or demise of a relationship stemming from an affair. People understand the meaning of their sexuality based on the phases of their life span (Murray, Pope & Willis, 2017). For example: when you’re dealing with younger clients that have experienced one or both parties who have had an affair there may be a higher relationship survival rating to those who are mid to late age in life. As you tend to grow older individuals look at the meaning of relationships differently from when they were younger, and it makes it harder for the relationship to survive. However, in both incidents depending on the nature of the infidelity, cultural and religious beliefs will play a big role in the client’s decisions. The nature of the relationship means was there a baby produced from the affair, was it a best friend or relative that was involved or someone they know can all be difficult reasons for a recovery process when dealing with couples and affairs. Therefore, depending on the individual, their life span, experience, religion, cultural background and the nature of the infidelity, these will factor in the survival, or ending rating of the relationship (Murray, Pope & Willis, 2017).

When couples come in for therapy due to infidelity there are chances with therapy the couple can survive. It will take both the client’s participation to make the relationship work after an affair. As a counselor, allow both clients to openly voice their pain, concerns and their expectations from their therapy. Once the counselor obtains the information needed, the best way to facilitate a recovery is by addressing both the sexual and relational aspects that relate to the client’s immediate concerns (Murray, Pope & Willis, 2017).

Reference

Murray, C., Pope, A., & Willis, B. (2017). Sexuality counseling: Theory, research, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

2. Classmate (A. Smi)

Infidelity, better known as an affair, is defined as a “secretive emotional and or/ sexual involvement with a person outside of a committed couple’s relationship” (pg. 386) which violates the couples committed agreement which each other and is the frequent cause of couple or martial conflicts (Schmidt, Green , & Prouty , 2016). Unfortunately, according to Wetchler and Hecker (2015) infidelity have been proven one of the most difficult issues to treat as reported by therapist. This is due to when having an affair, there is emotional truma causing a breach in trust and insecurity to the person being betrayed (Wetchler & Hecker , 2015) Although this may indeed be the case, recovery is based on the couple and their willingness to work through the problem (Murray , Pope, & Willis , 2017). This includes not only the betrayed partner willingness to forgive, but the betraying partner willingness to take on the responsibility of the wrong they have committed (Palmo & Palmo, 2008; Wetchler & Hecker , 2015).

If a couple has chosen to recover their relationship broken by an affair, couples counseling would be helpful in resolving the “wound in the relationship” (Murray , Pope, & Willis , 2017, p. 242). In couple counseling the goals should include understanding what led up to the affair, repairing the relationship, all while reducing emotional distress of both parties (Cornish , Hanks , & Black , 2020). Counseling can offer numerous ways to help restore a relationship. This includes counseling which focuses of forgiveness, both self and the other person, building intimacy, and understanding the couple’s interaction prior the affair (Bahnaru & Runcan , 2019; Cornish , Hanks , & Black , 2020; Murray , Pope, & Willis , 2017). Counselors could use different therapeutic approaches such as emotional focused therapy, intersystem approach, integrative approach, and structural family approach (Bahnaru & Runcan , 2019).  A counselor could also use behavioral couples therapy to focus on increasing initmacy, and narrative therapy for healing through storytelling (Bahnaru & Runcan , 2019). Counselors could also offer individual counseling for the couple to help with individuals issues related to the affair, as long as it is understood there is a no secret clause and both individuals agree (Smith, 2011).

Overall, a couple could indeed recover from an affair and counseling would be helpful in the reconnection process (Bahnaru & Runcan , 2019; Murray , Pope, & Willis , 2017; Smith, 2011). However, not everyone’s relationship will survive infidelity. In cases such as these individual counseling may be nessessary to help with dealing with grief and loss, depression, anxiety, etc (Murray , Pope, & Willis , 2017). For those who chooses to work it through, there are many steps counselors can take to help the couple reach their goals of relationship recovery.

References

Bahnaru, A., & Runcan , R. (2019). Social work and family: treating infidelity. Revista de Asistenta Sociala, 2, 39-50.

Cornish , M. A., Hanks , M. A., & Black , S. M. (2020). Self-forgiving process in therapy for romantic relationship infidelity: A evidence-based case study. Psychotherapy. Retrieved from .http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pst0000292

Murray , C., Pope, A., & Willis , B. (2017). Sexuality Counseling. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Palmo, P., & Palmo, L. (2008). Couple and Family Counseling: Issues related to couples. (I. (. Laureate Education, Interviewer, & Author, Editor) Baltimore .

Schmidt, A. E., Green , M. S., & Prouty , A. M. (2016). Effects is parential infidelity and interparental conflicts on relational ethics between adult children and parents: a contextual perspective. Journal of Family Therapy, 38, 386-408.

Smith, T. (2011). Understanding infidelity: An interview with Gerald Weeks. The Family Jounral: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 19(3), 333-339.

Wetchler , J. L., & Hecker , L. L. (2015). An Introduction to Marriage and Family Therapy (2nd ed.). New Tork: Routledge.

3. Classmate (E. Mas)

Recovery from Affairs

When one or both partners have an affair in a marriage or a relationship, the results can be devastating. Murray, Pope and Willis (2017) wrote that the impact of an affair can be similar to the effects of other traumatic experiences. The individuals involved not only feel depressed but they may also grieve due to the potential loss of their relationship. An affair can certainly change the dynamics of a relationship. However, I do not think that infidelity is always an absolute means to the end of a relationship if the couple is willing to work through it.

As a counselor, there are various ways that we can guide a couple that is struggling with past or current infidelity. Murray, Pope, and Willis (2017) stated that it is important to work toward some level of forgiveness and healing. Forgiving and healing can lead to a reconnection of the couple, while also working through the issues of the infidelity. It is also important to be mindful of relationship issues that may have proceeded the affair. The couple may have previous, underlying issues that need resolving. Counseling could certainly help the couple work through these issues in order to move past the infidelity and begin their relationship once more.

References

Murray, C., Pope, A., & Willis, B. (2017). Sexuality counseling: Theory, research, and practice.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Required Resources

Readings

· Course Text: Murray, C., Pope, A., & Willis, B. (2017). Sexuality counseling: Theory, research, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

· Chapter 5, “Lifespan Development and Sexuality”

· Chapter 8, “Sexuality and Intimate Relationships”

· Article: Aalgaard, R. A., Bolen, R. M., & Nugent, W. R. (2016). A literature review of forgiveness as a beneficial intervention to increase relationship satisfaction in couples therapy. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26(1), 46–55. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Article: Brotto, L. A., Chivers, M. L., Millman, R. D., & Albert, A. (2016). Mindfulness-Based sex therapy improves genital-subjective arousal concordance in women with sexual desire/arousal difficulties. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 45(8), 1907–1921. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Article: Faircloth, C. (2015). Negotiating intimacy, equality, and sexuality in the transition to parenthood. SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ONLINE, 20(4). Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Handout: Sexuality in Adulthood Across the Family Life Cycle

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Choose one of the following questions:

1. Describe the functionalist view of social stratification, and the conflict theory’s view of social stratification. Then take a pro or con position on each of the following three points: first, social stratification is necessary for societies to exist and prosper; second, the United States functions, overall, as a meritocracy; and third, human beings-driven as they are by human nature-are incapable of ever creating and/or living in a classless society. Provide detail about ‘why’ you are taking the pro or con position for each point.

2. Describe the three theories of global inequality addressed in the reading this week, examining the existence and persistence of inequality between countries and regions. Also address the strengths and weaknesses of these perspectives as analytical tools.  What is the most accurate theory to address global inequality?  Explain why you selected this perspective using specific examples.

 

The Week 4 Forum meets the following course objectives:

  • Apply a sociological perspective to the social world
  • Analyze contemporary social issues using the sociological imagination and use sociological theories and concepts to analyze everyday life.
  • Discuss global stratification and explain social class and the impact of stratification in the United States.

 

 

Instructions for all Forums:

Each week, learners will post one initial post per week.  This post must demonstrate comprehension of the course materials, the ability to apply that knowledge in the real world.  Learners will engage with the instructor and peers throughout the learning week.  To motivate engaged discussion, posts are expected to be on time with regular interaction throughout the week.  All posts should demonstrate college level writing skills. To promote vibrant discussion as we would in a face to face classroom, formatted citations and references are not required.  Quotes should not be used at all, or used sparingly.  If you quote a source quotation marks should be used and an APA formatted citation and reference provided.

 

 

 

Points

 

Exemplary (100%)

 

 

Accomplished (85%)

 

 

Developing (75%)

 

Beginning (65%)

 

Not Participating (0%)

 

Comprehension of course materials

 

4

Initial post demonstrates rich comprehension of course materials.  Detailed use of terminology or examples learned in class.  If post includes opinion, it is supported with evaluated evidence. Initial post demonstrates clear comprehension of course materials.  Use of terminology or examples learned in class. If post includes opinion, it is supported with evaluated evidence. Initial post demonstrates some comprehension of course materials.  Specific terminology or examples learned in class may be incorrect or incomplete.  Post may include some opinion without evaluated evidence. Initial post does not demonstrate comprehension of course materials.  Specific terminology or examples learned in class are not included.  Post is opinion based without evaluated evidence. No posting, post is off topic, post does not meet minimum criteria for demonstrating beginning level of comprehension. Post may be plagiarized, or use a high percentage of quotes that prevent demonstration of student’s comprehension.
Real world application of knowledge

 

2

Initial post demonstrates that the learner can creatively and uniquely apply the concepts and examples learned in class to a personal or professional experience from their life or to a current event. Initial post demonstrates that the learner can apply the concepts and examples learned in class to a  personal or professional experience from their life or to a current event. Initial post does not clearly demonstrate that the learner can apply the concepts and examples learned in class. Unclear link between the concepts and examples learned in class to personal or professional experience or to a current event. Initial post does not demonstrate that the learner can apply the concepts and examples learned in class. No link to a personal or professional experience or to a current event is made in the post. No posting, post is off topic, post does not meet minimum criteria for demonstrating beginning level of application. Post may be plagiarized, or use a high percentage of quotes that prevent demonstration of student’s ability to apply comprehension.
Active Forum Engagement and Presence

3

Learner posts 4+ different days in the learning week.

 

Replies to at least one response from a classmate or instructor on the learner’s initial post to demonstrate the learner is reading and considering classmate responses to their ideas.

 

Posts two or more 100+ word responses to initial posts of classmates.  Posts motivate group discussion and contributes to the learning community by doing 2+ of the following:

  • offering advice or strategy
  • posing a question,
  • providing an alternative point-of-view,
  • acknowledging similar experiences
  • sharing a resource
Learner posts 3 different days in the learning week.

 

Posts two 100+ word responses to initial posts of classmates.  Posts motivate group discussion and contribute to the learning community by doing  2+ of the following:

 

  • offering advice or strategy
  • posing a question,
  • providing an alternative point-of-view,
  • acknowledging similar experiences
  • sharing a resource
Learner posts 2 different days in the learning week.

 

Posts one 100+ word response to initial post of classmate.  Post motivates group discussion and contributes to the learning community by doing 1 of the following:

 

  • offering advice or strategy
  • posing a question,
  • providing an alternative point-of-view,
  • acknowledging similar experiences
  • sharing a resource
Learner posts 1 day in the learning week.

 

Posts one 100+ word response to initial post of classmate.  Post does not clearly motivate group discussion or clearly contribute to the learning community.

 

Responses do not:

  • offering advice or strategy
  • posing a question,
  • providing an alternative point-of-view,
  • acknowledging similar experiences
  • sharing a resource
Learner posts 1 day in the learning week, or posts are not made during the learning week and therefore do not contribute to or enrich the weekly conversation.

 

No peer responses are made.  One or more peer responses of low quality (“good job, I agree”) may be made.

Writing skills

1

Post is 250+ words.  All posts reflect widely accepted academic writing protocols like using capital letters, cohesive sentences, and no texting language. Dialogue is also polite and respectful of different points of view. Post is 250+ words.  The majority of posts reflect widely-accepted academic writing protocols like using capital letters, cohesive sentences, and no texting language. Dialogue is polite and respectful of different points of view. Post is 175+ words.  The majority of posts reflect widely-accepted academic writing protocols like using capital letters (“I am” not “i am”), cohesive sentences, and no texting language. Dialogue may not be respectful of different points of view. Post is 150+ words.  The majority of the forum communication ignores widely-accepted academic writing protocols like capital letters, cohesive sentences, and texting; Dialogue may not be respectful of different points of view. No posting, post is off topic and does not meet minimum criteria for demonstrating beginning level of comprehension.
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