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The musculoskeletal system is made up of voluntary muscles and connective tissue and has a variety of functions. Connective tissue includes bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and fascia (Lewis et al., 2017 as cited by Falkner & Green, 2020). Normal findings of the musculoskeletal system include full range of motion of each joint set with no observable abnormalities and no sign of pain from the patient (National Center for Biotechnology, n.d.). Abnormal findings when doing a musculoskeletal examination would include numbness, edema, increased warmth, muscle spasms, decreased range of movement, stiffness, or tenderness (Huether et al., 2017; Porth, 2014 as cited by Falkner & Green, 2020) associated with pain. Some examples of abnormal musculoskeletal condition are osteoporis and muscle atrophy.
Important organs that secrete hormones are responsible for the endocrine system in the body effecting the metabolic system. Alterations because of stress or illness such as birth defects, surgery, trauma, cancer, infection, or autoimmune disease effect the production and secretion of hormones (Falkner & Green, 2020). One of the biggest issues is diabetes because of lack of insulin production or secretion. Abnormalities include hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia.
Sepsis is one of the main concerns when it comes to multisystem response. Sepsis is when the is an infection in the blood and can lead systemic inflammation. The first stage of sepsis is systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). In this stage the symptoms include tachycardia, tachypnea and a high fever or low fever and a high white blood cell count. The hope is to catch it by this point and not let it go any further.