Upon a clear study and reflection of the novel a fundamental theme of the letter of the law or in other words spirit of law features immensely throughout the entire novel. Based on such a perspective this paper analyzes the theme of the letter of the law by addressing the nature of the law and how ethics relates to the theme of spirit of the law reveals in the novel. Throughout the novel one significant observation is that a majority of the characters constantly fight against their oppression and exploitation with several cases of brutality abuses maltreatment and injustice becoming a common order in the novel. Despite such inappropriate occurrences sympathy remains eluded from the wretched members of the society. The unfortunate occurrences in the society exist because men and women in the society lack the most appropriate paths of proper sustainability depending on the kind of society. instead such occurrences happen because of the failure on the side of the society the state and the law that governs the state and society. Evidently the novel portrays a picture that despite the existence of the law to govern the affairs of the state and society the same law has little to do with the dangerous classes in the society. Such an aspect makes the other members of the society lead miserable lives as the law that should act in their defense seems disinterested in advocating them and additionally offers little support for their plight. Based on such a reflection it is clear that the spirit of the law is ethically unjust in advocating for classes of the just instead it lean towards the support of the oppressors making the lives of the majority very miserable.

Nowadays, teenagers no longer use their phones to make calls to their family and friends, they use text messaging (Coe and Oakhill).

The use of text messaging services has grown rapidly since the year 1992 when the first text message was sent. In the year 2011, sixty percent of people from all over the globe were active in text messaging. this is a mind-blowing 4.2 billion people. Teenagers form the largest share of text message users, and this has created concern for parents, teachers, and linguists who claim that texting has affected the student’s schoolwork. In the United States, teachers are of the belief that students are making countless mistakes in essays and other writing assignments because of the abbreviation language style common in text messages. Pew Internet and the American Life Project found in their survey that sixty-four percent of teenagers have admitted to using some text messaging abbreviation style in academic writing (Coe and Oakhill).

Texting has positive and adverse impacts on the literacy skills of students. Educators claim that texting has adverse effects on the writing skills of their pupils. The issue of text messaging on teen literacy has received a lot of attention over the years. It is now common that “textisms” have adverse effects on teenage literacy, but some studies have shown that they have positive effects depending on the situation they are employed in. With much of the media attention being directed on the adverse impact of texting, some studies have shown that texting has positive effects on the students. One study showed that the more the abbreviated words were in use, the more the verbal reasoning tended to be. The study showed a clear relation between textism and verbal reasoning. Another study conducted on British students revealed that proficient literacy skills were used to decipher text messages. this shows that text messaging is leading to the development of literacy skills in teenagers. According to Drouin and Davis, text messages are associated with emoticons, acronyms and removing excess grammar and spelling parts.

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