After birth, every child undergoes growth and development from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. This growth and development process termed as psychological, development occurs in a sequence of permanent stages known as psychosexual stages, a term proposed by Sigmund Freud. He named the stages that way because they represented the fixation of libido (sexual instincts and drives) on diverse parts of the human being’s body (Fonagy, 16). He asserted that as a human being matures physically their body’s parts become vital erogenous zones, that is, significant sources of pleasure, frustration, or both. Freud believed that pleasure and tension were the basis of human life formation. that libido build-up caused tension while the discharge of the libido led to pleasure.
.He stressed the first 5 years are critical to the development of adult personality. the id must be directed so as to gratify social demands. The control of the id yields conflicts between social norms and frustrated wishes. The control was accomplished by the ego and superego through publicly tolerable media. The different satisfaction centers at different parts of the body during different stages of growth makes the conflict at every stage psychosexual (Brenner, 62).
Freud noted that the conflict associated with each psychosexual stage had to be resolved for the person to successfully progress to the next stage otherwise they will backtrack once on the proceeding stage. He also noted that the more the sexual energy was required to complete a particular stage, the more important the stage’s features remained in the process of psychological maturity (Newman and Philip, 35). He likens this correlation to military troops. the conflict to the resistance the troops experience when they advance in the war. If the troops are highly efficient, more of them will advance to the next battle, but if they are less efficient, more of them will stay behind. Equally, if the conflict is efficiently resolved, more libido will be passed to the next stage, but if less efficiently resolved, less libido is passed to the next stage.